OUTDOOR ENVIRONMENTS AT CRISIS SHELTERS: User Needs and Preferences with Respect to Design and Activities

Victoria L. Lygum, Ulrika K. Stigsdotter, Cecil C. Konijnendijk, Henriette Højberg

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26687/archnet-ijar.v7i1.122

Abstract

The aim of this study was to identify implications for the design of outdoor environments at crisis shelters for women and children survivors of domestic violence. To address this aim, landscape analyses and interviews with staff were conducted at three Danish cases. The findings are presented in descriptions of the three cases in terms of the number of residents, context, building type and the characteristics of outdoor environments. Furthermore, a thematic content analysis of the interviews resulted in five categories that offer a nuanced insight into how the different types of outdoor environments support crisis shelter functions. The categories are: Protection against perpetrators of violence and helping residents to feel safe; Accessibility in the design, straightforward activities and staff guidance; Being outside and the positive distractions of nature; Space for all; Room to play and relieve children’s feelings. Finally, the findings were summarized to give an overview of implications for design.

Keywords

Children; crisis shelter; design of outdoor environments; domestic violence; women

Full Text:

PDF

References

Barlach, L., & Stenager, K. (2010). LOKK årsstatistik 2010 – Kvinder og børn på krisecentre. Odense: Servicestyrelsen. Available at

http://www.lokk.dk/_files/Dokumenter/rapporterogpublikationer/statistikker/lokkrsstatistikkenendeligudgave2011.pdf Accessed 3rd July 2012. (in Danish)

Burnard, P. (1991). A method of analysing interview transcripts in qualitative research. Nurse Education Today,11, 461-466.

Campbell, J. C. (2002). Health consequences of intimate partner violence. The Lancet, 359, 1331-1336.

Campbell, J. C., & Lewandowski, L. A. (1997). Mental and Physical Health Effects of Intimate Partner Violence on Women and Children. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 20(2), 353-374.

Coid, J., Petruckevitch, A., Chung, W. S., Richardson, J., Moorey, S., & Feder, G. (2003). Abusive experiences and psychiatric morbidity in women primary care attenders. British Journal of Psychiatry, 183, 332-339.

Cooper Marcus, C., & Barnes, M. (Eds) (1999). Healing Gardens: Therapeutic benefits and design recommendations. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Diaz-Olavarrieta, C., Campbell, J., Garcia de la Cadena, C., Paz, F., & Villa, A. R. (1999). Domestic Violence against Patients with Chronic Neurologic Disorders. Arch Neurol, 56, 681-685.

Fantuzzo J. W., & Mohr, W. K. (1999). Prevalence and Effects of Child Exposure to Domestic Violence. The Future of Children – Domestic Violence and Children, 9(3), 21-32.

Flyvbjerg, B. (2004). Five Misunderstandings About Case-Study Research. In C. Seale, G. Gobo, J. F. Gubrium, & D. Silverman (Eds.), Qualitative Research Practice, (pp.420-434). London and Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Grahn, P., Tenngart Ivarsson, C., Stigsdotter, U., & Bengtsson, I. (2010). Using affordances as a health promoting tool in a therapeutic garden: the development of horticultural therapy in Alnarp, Sweden. In C. Ward Thompsom, P. Aspinall, S. Bell (Eds.), Innovative Approaches to Researching Landscape and Health, Open Space: People Space 2, (pp.120-159). Abingdon: Routledge.

Guba, E., & Lincoln, Y. (1982). Epistemological and methodological bases of naturalistic inquiry. Educational Technology Research and Development, 30(4), 233-252.

Helweg-Larsen, K., & Frederiksen, M. L. (2007). Mænds Vold mod Kvinder – Omfang, karakter og indsats mod vold, 2007. Statens Institut for Folkesundhed, Syddansk Universitet og Minister for Ligestilling. Available at http://www.sifolkesundhed.dk/upload/m%C3%A6nds_vold_mod_kvinder.pdf Accessed 3rd July 2012. (in Danish)

Keeley, J., & Leigh, A. S. (1999). Design and Implementation of Horticultural Therapy with Children Affected by Homelessness and Domestic Violence. Journal of Therapeutic Horticulture, 10, 34-39.

Kvale, S., & Brinkman, S. (2009). InterView – Introduktion til et håndværk. København: Hans Reitzels Forlag. (in Danish).

Lee, S., Kim, M., S., & Suh, J., K. (2008). Effects of Horticultural Therapy of Self-Esteem and Depression of Battered Women at a Shelter in Korea. In E. Matsuo, P. D. Relf & M. Burchett (Eds.), VIIIth International People-plant Symposium Proceedings. Acta Horticulturae (ISHS), 790, (pp.139-142). Available at

http://www.actahort.org/books/790/790_19.htm Accessed 3rd July 2012.

Lygum, V. L., & Stigsdotter, U. K. (in press). Gardens at crisis shelters for women and children survivors of domestic violence. In: C. Cooper Marcus & N. Sachs with M. Barnes & T. Hazen (Eds.), Therapeutic Landscapes. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Lygum, V. L., Stigsdotter, U. K., Konijnendijk, C. C., & Højberg, H. (2012). Outdoor Environments at Crisis Shelters in Denmark. Journal of Therapeutic Horticulture, 12(2), 8-31.

Lynch, K. (1960). The Image of the City. Cambridge: The MIT Press.

Ottosson, J., & Grahn, P. (2008). The Role of Natural Settings in Crisis Rehabilitation: How Does the Level of Crisis Influence the Response to Experience of Nature with Regards to Measures of Rehabilitation?. Landscape Research, 33(1), 51-70.

Pierce, C. A., & Seals, L. M. (2006). The Importance of Community Gardening for Homeless Women: A Pilot Study. Journal of therapeutic horticulture, 17, 20-26.

Plichta, S. B. (2004). Intimate Partner Violence and Physical Health Consequences: Policy and Practice Implications. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 19, 1296-1323.

Refuerzo, B. J., & Verderber, S. (1993). In support of a New Life: A Shelter for Victims of Domestic Violence. Journal of Architectural & Planning Research, 10(1), 40-58.

Refuerzo, B. J., & Verderber, S. (1990). Dimensions of Person-Environment Transaction in Shelters for Victims of Domestic Violence. Journal of Architectural & Planning Research, 7, 33-52.

Refuerzo, B. J., & Verderber, S. (1989). Effects of Personal Status and Patterns of Use on Residential Satisfaction for Victims of Domestic Violence. Environment and Behavior, 21(4), 413-434.

Refuerzo, B. J., & Verderber, S. (1988). Creating a safe refuge: The functions of nature in the design of shelters for battered women and their children. In D. Lawrence, R. Habe, A. Hacker & D. Sherrod (Eds.). Paths for CoExistence (EDRA 19 Proceedings) (pp. 63-69). Washington, DC: Environmental Design Research Association.

Seals, L. M., & Pierce, C. A. (2007). Extension Master Gardeners: Helping the Homeless to Heal. Journal of Extension, 45(3). Available at http://www.joe.org/joe/2007june/iw5.shtml Accessed 3rd July 2012.

Stigsdotter, U. K., Palsdottir, A. M., Burls, A., Chermaz, A., Ferrini, F., & Grahn, P. (2011). Nature-Based Therapeutic Interventions. In K. Nilsson, M. Sangster, C. Gallis, T. Hartig, S. de Vries, S. K. Seeland, & J. Schipperijn (Eds.), Forests, Trees and Human Health, (pp. 309-342). New York, Dordrecht, Heidelberg, London: Springer.

Stuart, S. M. (2005). Lifting Spirits: Creating Gardens in California Domestic Violence Shelters. In P. F. Barlett (Ed.), Urban Place – Reconnecting with the Natural World (pp. 61-88). Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

The Body Shop/UNICEF (2006). Behind Closed Doors. The Impact of Domestic Violence on Children. London: The Body Shop International Plc. Available at http://www.unicef.org/protection/files/BehindClosedDoors.pdf Accessed 3rd July 2012.

UN (2010). Handbook for Legislation on Violence against Women. New York: UN.

Ulrich, R. (1984). View through a window may influence recovery from surgery. Science, 24, 420-421.

Verderber, S. (2001). Recent trends in the design of shelters for victims of domestic violence. Loyola Law Review, 47, 457-470.

Ward Thompson, C. (2011). Linking landscape and health: the recurring theme. Landscape and Urban Planning, 99, 187-195.

Wolfe D.A., Crooks, C. V., Lee, V., McIntyre-Smith, A., & Jaffe, P.G. (2003). The effects of children’s exposure to domestic violence: a meta-analysis and critique. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 6(3), 171–187.

Zeisel, J. (2006). Inquiry by Design. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2015 International Journal of Architectural Research: ArchNet-IJAR



ABOUT US


- ISSN (Online) #1938 7806 - ArchNet-IJAR is covered by ArchNet@ MIT Libraries, Avery Index to Architectural Periodicals, EBSCO, CNKI, Pro-Quest, Scopus-Elsevier, Web of Science.

- Published work in ArchNet-IJAR is licensed under Creative Commons: CC-BY--NC-ND license, see http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/

Copyrights © Archnet-IJAR 2007-2018

 
 

Hit Counter
Visitor Hits Since 15 Jan 2014