Ingrid Belčáková, Pavla Galbavá, Martina Majorošová

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26687/archnet-ijar.v12i3.1637


Healing and therapeutic landscape design proposals are particularly suitable for medical facilities and, in general, facilities for people with health disorders, where they become a major support in difficult situations and can serve as a supplement to treatment. They do not replace medical help and different therapies, and neither do they exclude their need. However, their effects can improve and accelerate the recovery process in patients. In Slovakia, medical facilities do not often meet modern medical care requirements in terms of their technologies and equipment. For this reason, it is necessary to mainly transform hospital facilities and their exteriors in order to create the required natural foundation for patients in the form of healing and therapeutic landscape design. Using the example of the Philippe Pinel Psychiatric Hospital in Pezinok (Slovakia, Central Europe), we present a proposal for a green vegetation-scaping using the existing space, adding elements that highlight and support the therapeutic effect of the proposed space. The aim of the proposal is to create an environment that will bring positive changes for patients while serving as a relaxation space for employees.


landscape design; healing and therapeutic effects; exterior landscaping of hospitals

Full Text:



Beal, H. (2004). Natural Healing. Architecture Minnesota, 30, 48-53.

Bengtsson, A., & Grahn, P. (2014). Outdoor environments in healthcare settings: A quality evaluation tool for use in designing healthcare gardens. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 13, 878-891. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2014.09.007.

Benngtsson, A., & Carlsson, G. (2013). Outdoor environments at three nursing homes: qualitative interviews with residents and next of kin. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 12 (3), 393-400.

Chen, L. (2004). On the construction of healthcare garden. J. Shaoyang Univ. (Natural Science), 1(4), 108–109, 114.

Cooper Marcus, C., & Sachs, N. A. (2014). The salutogenic city. World Health Design, 7(4),18-25.

Cooper Marcus,C., Luo,H., & Jin, H. (2009). Healing gardens in hospitals. Chin.Lands.Archit., 7, 1–6.

Cooper Marcus, C. (2007). Healing Gardens in Hospitals. Interdisciplinary Design and Research-Journal, 1(1: Design and Health), 1-27.

Cooper Marcus, C. (1997). Nature as Healer: Therapeutic Benefits in Outdoor Places. Nordisk Architekturforsking, 1, 9-20.

Cooper Marcus, C., & Barnes, M. (1999). Healing Gardens: Therapeutic Benefits and Design. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Eckerling, M. (1996). Guidelines for Designing Healing Gardens. Journal of Therapeutic Horticulture, 8, 21-25.

Epstein, M. (1998). The Garden as Healer. Seattle Daily Journal of Commerce. from http://www.djc.com/news/co/11184021.html.

Fredrickson, B. L. (2013). Updated thinking on positivity ratios. American Psychologist, 68(9), 814-822. doi: 10.1037/a0033584.

Gerlach-Spriggs, N., Kaufman, E.R., & Warner, S. M. Jr. (1998). Restorative Gardens: The Healing Landscape. New Haven, CT and London: Yale University Press.

Grahn, P. et al. (2010). Using affordances as a health-promoting tool in a therapeutic garden. In C. Ward Thompson, P. Aspinall & S. Bell (Eds.), Innovative Approaches to Researching Landscape and Health: Open Space: People Space 2 (pp.116-54). New York: Routledge.

Jiang, S. (2014). Therapeutic landscapes and healing gardens: A review of Chinese literature in relation to the studies in western countries. Frontiers of Architectural Research, 3, 141-153.

Kaplan, R., & Kaplan, S. (1989). The experience of Nature: A psychological perspective. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Kellert, S. R., Heerwagen, J., & Mador, M. (2008). Biophilic Design: The Theory, Science, and Practice of Bringing Buildings to Life. New Jersey: John Wiley.

Kellert, S. R. (2005). Building for Life: Designing and Understanding the Human-Nature Connection. Washington D.C.: Island Press.

McDowell, C. F., & McDowell, T. C. (1998). The Sanctuary Garden. New York: Fireside Books.

Mitrione, S., & Larson, J. (2007). Healing by Design: Healing Gardens and Therapeutic Landscapes. Informe Design: Where Research Informs Design. from https://www.informedesign.org/_news/nov_v02.pdf

Mintner, S. (1993). The Healing Garden. London: Headline Book Publishing.

Rodiek, S. (2008). A new tool for evaluating senior living environments. Senior Housing and Care Journal, 16 (1), 3-10.

Sachs, N. A., & Shepley, M. M. (2014). Book Review: Australian Healthcare Design 2000-2015: A Critical Review of the Design and Build of Healthcare Infrastructure in Australia. Health Environments Research & Design, 7(3), 152-153.

Sachs, N., & Marcus, C.C. (2012). Are healing gardens becoming too popular? Medical Construction & Design, 8(5), 68-70.

Shackell, A., & Walter, R. (2012). Practice Guide Greenspace design for health and well being. Edinburgh: Forestry Commission.

Smidl, S., Mitchell, D.M., & Creighon, L.C. (2017). Outcomes of a Therapeutic Gardening Program in a Mental Health Recovery Center. Occupational Therapy in Mental Health, 33(4), 374-385. doi: 10.1080/0164212X.2017.1314207.

Smith , J. (2007). Health and nature: The influence of nature on design of the environment of care. A Position Paper for the Environmental Standards Council of The Center for Health Design (pp.20). The Hague: The Center for Health Design.

Stigsdotter, U.K., & Randrup, B.T. (2008). A Conceptuel Model for therapy gardens and horticultural therapy for people sufferingg from stress, Frederiksberg: University of Copenhagen.

Stigsdotter, U.K., et al. (2014). Conceptual model Health Forest Octovia. A model for designing green spaces with perceived sensory dimensions that promote good health. Frederiksberg: University of Copenhagen.

Tyson, M. M. (1998). The Healing Landscape: Therapeutic Outdoor Environments. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Ulrich, R. S. (1984). View Through a Window May Influence Recovery from Surgery. Science, 224 (2), 420.

Ulrich, R. S., (2002). Communicating with the healthcare community about plant benefits. In: Proceedings of the Sixth International People Plant Symposium. Chicago: Chicago Botanical Garden.

Ulrich, R. S. (1999). Effects of gardens on health outcomes: Theory and research. In C. Cooper Marcus & M. Barnes (Eds.), Healing gardens: Therapeutic Benefits and Design Recommendations (pp. 27-86). New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Warner, S.B., & Baron, J.H. (1993). Restorative gardens. British Medical Journal, 306 (6885), 1080-1081.

Westphal, J., (2000). Hype, Hyperbole, and Health: Therapeutic site design. Urban Lifestyles: Spaces, Places, People. Rotterdam: A.A.Balkema.

Wilson, E. (1986). Biophilia: the Human Bond with Other Species. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Zeisel, J. (2007). Creating a therapeutic garden that works for people living with Alzheimer’s. Journal of Housing for the Elderly, 21(1-2),13-33.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Ingrid Belcakova

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


- ISSN (Online) #1938 7806 - ArchNet-IJAR is covered by ArchNet@ MIT Libraries, Avery Index to Architectural Periodicals, EBSCO, CNKI, Pro-Quest, Scopus-Elsevier, Web of Science.

- Published work in ArchNet-IJAR is licensed under Creative Commons: CC-BY--NC-ND license, see http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/

Copyrights © Archnet-IJAR 2007-2018


Hit Counter
Visitor Hits Since 15 Jan 2014